What is Built-in Services Load? Explain different types of Built-in Services Load in details with example of Built-in Services load.
Built-in services load refers to the additional vertical load imposed on a structure due to the presence of various built-in services or utilities. These services include mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and other systems that are integrated into the building’s structure and provide essential functions for the occupants. It is crucial to consider the built-in services load during the structural design to ensure that the structure can safely support these additional loads.
Here are some common types of built-in services load with examples:
- Mechanical services load: Mechanical systems, such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), impose a load on the structure. This load includes the weight of equipment, ductwork, pipes, and other components associated with the HVAC system. For instance, in a commercial building, the weight of air handling units, chillers, pumps, ductwork, and associated piping would contribute to the mechanical services load.
- Electrical services load: Electrical systems, including electrical panels, transformers, wiring, and conduits, impose a load on the structure. The weight of these components, along with any additional equipment such as backup generators, contributes to the electrical services load. In a high-rise building, for example, the weight of electrical panels, switchgear, distribution boards, and associated cabling would impose an electrical services load.
- Plumbing services load: Plumbing systems, such as water supply lines, drainage pipes, and plumbing fixtures, impose a load on the structure. The weight of the pipes, fittings, valves, and fixtures, along with the weight of water or other fluids within the system, contributes to the plumbing services load. In a residential building, the weight of water supply lines, drainage pipes, water tanks, and bathroom fixtures would impose a plumbing services load.
- Fire protection services load: Fire protection systems, including fire sprinkler systems, fire suppression equipment, and fire extinguishers, impose a load on the structure. The weight of the piping, sprinkler heads, pumps, and associated components contributes to the fire protection services load. In a commercial building, the weight of fire sprinkler systems, standpipes, and fire extinguisher cabinets would impose a fire protection services load.
- Communication and data services load: Communication and data systems, such as telephone lines, data cables, networking equipment, and server rooms, impose a load on the structure. The weight of the cables, racks, cabinets, and associated infrastructure contributes to the communication and data services load. In an office building, for example, the weight of networking equipment, data cables, and server racks would impose a communication and data services load.
It is important to accurately calculate and account for the built-in services load during the structural design to ensure that the structure can safely support these additional vertical loads. Structural engineers consider factors such as the weight and distribution of service components, their locations within the structure, and any anticipated dynamic loads or vibrations to determine the appropriate design and ensure the structural integrity and safety of the building.