What is Splice Joint. Explain in details different types of Splice Joint used in steel structure construction.
In steel structure construction, a splice joint is a connection used to join two or more structural members together. These joints are designed to provide continuity, strength, and stability to the overall structure by effectively transferring loads between the connected members. Splice joints are commonly used when the length of a single member is insufficient or when ease of transportation and assembly is a consideration.
There are different types of splice joints used in steel structure construction. Let’s explore them in detail:
- Butt Splice Joint: This is the most basic type of splice joint, where the ends of two members are brought together in a butt joint configuration. The ends are usually prepared by beveling or tapering to ensure full contact and proper alignment. The joint is typically connected by welding, which provides a strong and continuous connection. Butt splice joints are commonly used in applications where there are no limitations on the length of the connected members.
- Sleeve Splice Joint: In a sleeve splice joint, a sleeve or tube is used to connect the ends of the members. The sleeve is slid over the ends of the members, and the joint is typically bolted or welded together. Sleeve splice joints provide a straightforward and adjustable connection, as the sleeve length can be adjusted to accommodate different member lengths. This type of splice joint is commonly used in long-span structures such as bridges and trusses.
- Fish Plate Splice Joint: Also known as a cover plate or gusset plate splice joint, this type of joint involves using a plate to connect the ends of the members. The plate, known as a fish plate or splice plate, is bolted or welded to the flanges or webs of the members. Fish plate splice joints are widely used in steel bridges, crane runway beams, and other structures that require longer member lengths.
- Extended End-Plate Splice Joint: In this type of splice joint, an extended end plate is used to connect the ends of the members. The end plate is welded to the end of one member and bolted to the other member. Extended end-plate splice joints provide a larger contact area and more bolts, enhancing the moment transfer capacity between the members. This type of splice joint is commonly used in multi-story steel frames.
- Flange-Plate Splice Joint: Flange-plate splice joints involve connecting the flanges of two members using flange plates. The flange plates are bolted or welded to the flanges, providing continuity and load transfer between the members. Flange-plate splice joints are commonly used in beams and columns, as well as in moment-resisting frames.
It’s important to note that the selection of a specific splice joint depends on various factors, including the structural design requirements, load conditions, fabrication capabilities, transportation limitations, and construction techniques. The design and detailing of splice joints adhere to relevant codes, standards, and engineering principles to ensure the safety, integrity, and performance of the steel structure.