What is Tapered Flange Plate Connection? Explain in details step by step procedure to make a Tapered Flange Plate Connection with example and application.
Step 1: Design and Calculation
- Determine the loads and forces acting on the structure, including axial loads, shear forces, and bending moments.
- Calculate the required beam size and column size based on the applied loads and the material properties.
- Determine the required connection details, such as the type of connection (bolted or welded), number and size of bolts, and plate dimensions.
Step 2: Preparation
- Gather the necessary materials, including the steel beam, steel column, and connection plates.
- Ensure that the surfaces to be welded or bolted are clean and free from rust, oil, paint, or any other contaminants.
- Prepare the welding equipment, such as welding machine, electrodes, and protective gear (e.g., welding helmet, gloves, etc.), or gather the necessary bolts, nuts, and washers for a bolted connection.
Step 3: Positioning and Alignment
- Position the steel beam and column in their desired locations, ensuring proper alignment and orientation.
- Ensure that the ends of the beam and column are properly prepared for the connection, such as beveling or machining the ends if necessary.
- Use temporary bracing or clamps to hold the beam and column in place during the connection process.
Step 4: Welding or Bolting
- Welding Method:
- Tack weld the connection plates to the beam and column to hold them in place.
- Double-check the alignment and dimensions before proceeding with the final welding.
- Weld the connection plates to the beam and column using an appropriate welding technique, such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or gas metal arc welding (GMAW).
- Ensure that the welds provide sufficient strength to resist the applied bending moments and shear forces.
- Bolting Method:
- Position the connection plates against the beam and column, ensuring proper alignment with pre-drilled holes.
- Insert the bolts through the holes, placing washers and nuts on the other side.
- Tighten the nuts using an appropriate torque wrench or other tightening method, ensuring proper tension in the bolts.
- Ensure that the bolts provide sufficient clamping force to resist the applied bending moments and shear forces.
Step 5: Quality Control
- Inspect the welds or bolts visually to ensure they are free from defects such as cracks, porosity, or incomplete penetration.
- Conduct non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques like ultrasonic testing or magnetic particle inspection to verify the integrity of the welds or bolts.
- Verify the dimensions, alignment, and overall quality of the connection according to the design specifications.
Example and Application: A moment connection is commonly used in steel frame structures, such as multi-story buildings and bridges. It allows for the transfer of bending moments between beams and columns, providing stability and resisting lateral loads.
For instance, consider a steel building where a steel beam needs to be connected to a steel column. A moment connection would be used to join the beam and column, allowing the structure to withstand the applied loads, such as wind or seismic forces.
In this example, the connection plates would be welded or bolted to the beam and column, ensuring a secure and rigid connection. The moment connection allows the beam and column to act as a continuous system, sharing and transferring bending moments, thereby improving the overall structural performance and stability of the building.
Please note that specific design considerations, such as plate thickness, weld size, and bolt spacing, will depend on the project requirements, applicable codes and standards, and the engineer’s design calculations.
In summary, a moment connection involves the connection of a steel beam and column to transfer bending