Different types of load and its explanation in aspect Civil engineering Structure Design.
Loads are the forces or external effects that act on a structure or a component of a structure. In civil structure design, it is important to consider the various types of loads that the structure may be subjected to. Some of the different types of loads in civil structure design are:
- Dead load: Dead load is the weight of the structure itself and any fixed or permanent features such as walls, floors, roofs, beams, columns, etc. This load is constant and remains the same throughout the life of the structure. The dead load is calculated based on the material type, dimensions, and density of each element that forms the structure. Dead load is important to be considered in the design of structures as it affects the stability, strength, and durability of the structure.
- Live load: Live load is the weight of the moving or temporary elements that may be present on the structure such as people, furniture, vehicles, snow, rain, wind, etc. Live loads are variable and are not always present on the structure. They may change over time depending on the usage of the structure. Live load is a critical factor to be considered in the design of structures such as bridges, roofs, and floors, as they affect the capacity of the structure to bear the load.
- Wind load: Wind load is the force exerted on the structure due to the action of wind. The wind load on the structure is calculated based on the velocity, direction, and turbulence of the wind. It is essential to consider wind load in the design of tall buildings, bridges, and other structures that are exposed to the wind.
- Snow load: Snow load is the weight of the snow that accumulates on the roof, walls, and other horizontal surfaces of the structure. The snow load on the structure is calculated based on the weight of the snow per unit area and the amount of snowfall in the region. The snow load is important to be considered in the design of structures in regions that receive heavy snowfall.
- Seismic load: Seismic load is the force exerted on the structure due to an earthquake. The seismic load on the structure is calculated based on the magnitude and intensity of the earthquake and the soil type and structure’s geometry. It is essential to consider seismic load in the design of structures in regions that are prone to earthquakes.
- Soil load: Soil load is the force exerted on the foundation of the structure due to the weight of the soil above it. The soil load on the structure is calculated based on the weight of the soil per unit area and the depth of the foundation. Soil load is an important factor to be considered in the design of underground structures such as tunnels, basements, and deep foundations.
In conclusion, understanding and considering these different types of loads is essential for designing safe and structurally stable civil structures that can withstand the various external forces that they may be subjected to over their lifespan.