### What is Full Penetration Flange Plate Connection? Explain in details step by step procedure to make a Full Penetration Flange Plate Connection with example and application.

A full penetration flange plate connection is a structural connection used in steel construction that involves welding a flange plate to the end of a steel beam or column using a full penetration weld. In this type of connection, the weld fully penetrates the thickness of the flange plate, providing maximum strength and rigidity.

Here is a step-by-step procedure to make a full penetration flange plate connection:

Step 1: Design and Calculation

• Determine the loads and forces acting on the structure, including axial, shear, and bending forces.
• Determine the required size and thickness of the flange plates based on the applied loads and the material properties.
• Calculate the required number and size of bolts for the connection, considering the forces they will need to withstand.

Step 2: Preparation

• Gather the necessary materials, including the steel members (beams or columns) and the flange plates.
• Ensure that the surfaces to be welded are clean and free from rust, oil, paint, or any other contaminants.
• Prepare the welding equipment, such as welding machine, electrodes, and protective gear (e.g., welding helmet, gloves, etc.).

Step 3: Positioning and Alignment

• Position the steel members in their desired locations, ensuring proper alignment and orientation.
• Place the flange plate over the end of the steel member, ensuring it is centered and aligned with the beam or column edge.
• Use clamps or tack welds to temporarily hold the flange plate in place.

Step 4: Welding

• Start by tack welding the flange plate to the steel member. Tack welds are small, temporary welds that hold the plate in position.
• Set up the welding equipment to achieve the desired welding parameters, such as current, voltage, and electrode size.
• Begin welding by creating a full penetration weld along the length of the flange plate. The weld should penetrate the full thickness of the plate, ensuring complete fusion between the flange plate and the steel member.
• Use appropriate welding techniques, such as shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) or gas metal arc welding (GMAW), to achieve a strong and sound weld.
• Ensure that the weld has good penetration and fusion with the steel member, providing maximum strength and rigidity to the connection.

Step 5: Quality Control

• Inspect the weld visually to ensure it is free from defects such as cracks, porosity, or incomplete fusion.
• Conduct non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques like ultrasonic testing or magnetic particle inspection to verify the integrity of the weld.
• Verify the dimensions, alignment, and overall quality of the connection according to the design specifications.

Example and Application: Let’s consider an example of a full penetration flange plate connection in a steel building. Suppose you have two steel columns that need to be connected to a horizontal steel beam.

In this case, flange plates will be welded to the ends of the columns using full penetration welds, and the beam will be bolted to these flange plates. The full penetration welds provide maximum strength and rigidity to the connection, ensuring the overall stability and integrity of the building.

Full penetration flange plate connections are commonly used in various steel structures where maximum strength and rigidity are required. They are suitable for applications such as high-rise buildings, industrial facilities, and infrastructure projects. The full penetration welds ensure a robust and durable connection, capable of withstanding significant loads and forces.

In summary, a full penetration flange plate connection involves welding a flange plate to a steel member using a weld that fully penetrates the plate’s thickness. This type of connection provides maximum strength and rigidity and is commonly used in steel structures where structural integrity is crucial.