What is Flange Plate Joint. Explain in details different types of Flange Plate Joint used in steel structure construction.
In steel structure construction, a flange plate joint is a type of connection that involves connecting two structural members, typically beams or columns, by using flange plates. Flange plates are flat plates that are attached to the flanges of the members and are connected through bolts or welds. These joints provide strength, stability, and continuity between the connected members.
Here are different types of flange plate joints commonly used in steel structure construction:
- Bolted Flange Plate Connection: This is the most common type of flange plate joint. It involves bolting the flange plates to the flanges of the beams or columns. The flange plates are typically attached to the members through a combination of bolt holes and welding. High-strength bolts are used to transfer the shear and moment forces between the members. Bolted flange plate connections provide flexibility during construction, as they allow for adjustments and disassembly if required.
- Welded Flange Plate Connection: In this type of joint, the flange plates are welded to the flanges of the beams or columns. The welding process creates a strong and rigid connection between the members. Welded flange plate connections provide excellent load transfer and resistance to shear and moment forces. However, they require skilled welding procedures and are less adjustable compared to bolted connections.
- Partial Penetration Flange Plate Connection: This joint involves welding the flange plates to the flanges using a partial penetration weld. The weld does not fully penetrate the flange thickness, which allows for some adjustability and ease of fabrication. Partial penetration flange plate connections are commonly used in situations where welding full penetration welds may be challenging or time-consuming.
- Full Penetration Flange Plate Connection: In this type of joint, the flange plates are welded to the flanges using a full penetration weld. The weld penetrates the full thickness of the flanges, providing maximum strength and load transfer. Full penetration flange plate connections are often used in structures that require high load-carrying capacity and rigidity, such as industrial buildings and bridges.
- Tapered Flange Plate Connection: This joint is used when connecting tapered or haunched beams/columns to flange plates. The flange plates are designed to match the taper or haunch shape of the members. Tapered flange plate connections provide a smooth transition between the members and ensure continuity and load transfer along the tapered section.
The selection of a specific flange plate joint depends on various factors, including the structural design requirements, load conditions, fabrication capabilities, and construction techniques. The design and detailing of flange plate joints adhere to relevant codes, standards, and engineering principles to ensure the safety, integrity, and performance of the steel structure.