### What is the design criteria of Bevel Butt Joint? Explain in details step by step procedure of a design of Bevel Butt Joint with required formula and an example.

A bevel butt joint is a type of weld joint where two pieces of material are joined by welding along a beveled edge. This joint configuration provides good penetration and strength. The design criteria for a bevel butt joint involve ensuring proper weld size, penetration, and strength. Here is a step-by-step procedure for designing a bevel butt joint:

1. Determine Material and Thickness: Identify the materials being joined and determine their thickness. Consider the mechanical properties of the materials and ensure they are compatible for welding.
2. Calculate Required Weld Size: Determine the required weld size based on the design requirements, including the applied loads and the desired level of strength. The weld size is typically specified as the leg length of the bevel.
3. Determine Bevel Angle: The bevel angle determines the slope of the beveled edge. Select an appropriate bevel angle based on factors such as material thickness, welding process, and accessibility for welding. Common bevel angles for bevel butt joints range from 30 degrees to 45 degrees.
4. Calculate Bevel Depth: Calculate the required bevel depth based on the material thickness and the desired depth-to-thickness ratio. The depth-to-thickness ratio is typically specified in welding codes or standards and determines the depth of the bevel in relation to the material thickness.
5. Determine Weld Length: Calculate the required weld length based on the applied loads and the strength requirements. The weld length should be sufficient to provide proper load transfer and to prevent stress concentrations.
6. Select Welding Process: Choose the appropriate welding process for the joint based on factors such as material type, thickness, and the desired quality of the weld. Common welding processes for bevel butt joints include shielded metal arc welding (SMAW), gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and flux-cored arc welding (FCAW).
7. Determine Welding Parameters: Select the appropriate welding parameters, such as current, voltage, travel speed, and electrode size, based on the chosen welding process and the material being welded. Consult welding procedure specifications (WPS) or welding codes for guidance on selecting the welding parameters.
8. Prepare Joint Surfaces: Prepare the joint surfaces by cleaning them thoroughly and removing any contaminants, oxides, or coatings. Bevel the joint edges to the desired bevel angle and depth.
9. Welding Procedure Qualification: If required by the design codes or specifications, perform a welding procedure qualification test to ensure the weld meets the specified quality and strength requirements.
10. Quality Control and Inspection: Implement quality control measures during welding, including monitoring welding parameters, visual inspection of the weld, and non-destructive testing if necessary. Inspect the completed weld joint to ensure it meets the specified criteria.
11. Design Verification: Perform structural analysis or calculations to verify the strength and performance of the bevel butt joint. This may involve checks for weld size, penetration, and the overall joint strength based on the applied loads and the material properties.

Example: Design of a Bevel Butt Joint

Given:

• Material: Steel
• Thickness: 12 mm

Step 1: Determine Material and Thickness The material is steel with a thickness of 12 mm.

Step 2: Calculate Required Weld Size Based on the design load and desired strength, let’s assume a required weld size of 8 mm (leg length of the bevel).

Step 3: Determine Bevel Angle Choose a bevel angle of 30 degrees for the bevel butt joint.

Step 4: Calculate Bevel Depth Assuming a depth-to-thickness ratio of 1:2, the bevel depth would be 24 mm.

Step 5: Determine Weld Length Calculate the required weld length based on the applied load and the desired load transfer efficiency. Let’s assume a required weld length of 120 mm.

Step 6: Select Welding Process Choose the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process for the joint.

Step 7: Determine Welding Parameters Select the appropriate welding parameters, such as current, voltage, travel speed, and electrode size, based on the chosen welding process and the material being welded.

Step 8: Prepare Joint Surfaces Clean and bevel the joint edges to the desired bevel angle and depth.

Step 9: Welding Procedure Qualification Perform a welding procedure qualification test if required.

Step 10: Quality Control and Inspection Implement quality control measures during welding and inspect the completed weld joint.

Step 11: Design Verification Perform structural analysis or calculations to verify the strength and performance of the bevel butt joint.

It is important to note that the specific design criteria and formulas for bevel butt joints may vary depending on the design codes and standards being used. It is recommended to consult the relevant design code or consult with a qualified welding engineer or structural engineer to ensure accurate and compliant joint design.